Testing the equality of two coefficients is one of my more popular posts. This is a good thing — often more interesting hypotheses are to test two parameters against each other, as opposed to a strict null hypothesis of a coefficient against zero. Every now an then I get questions about applying this idea to new situations in which it is not always straightforward how to figure out. So here are a few examples using demonstration R code.

# Multinomial Models

One question I received about applying the advice was to test coefficients across different contrasts in multinomial models. It may not seem obvious, but the general approach of extracting out the coefficients and the covariance between those estimates works the same way as most regression equations.

So in a quick example in R:

```
library(nnet)
data(mtcars)
library(car)
mtcars$cyl <- as.factor(mtcars$cyl)
mtcars$am <- as.factor(mtcars$am)
mod <- multinom(cyl ~ am + hp, data=mtcars, Hess=TRUE)
summary(mod)
```

And the estimates for `mod`

are:

```
> summary(mod)
Call:
multinom(formula = cyl ~ am + hp, data = mtcars)
Coefficients:
(Intercept) am1 hp
6 -42.03847 -3.77398 0.4147498
8 -92.30944 -26.27554 0.7836576
Std. Errors:
(Intercept) am1 hp
6 27.77917 3.256003 0.2747842
8 31.93525 46.854100 0.2559052
Residual Deviance: 7.702737
AIC: 19.70274
```

So say we want to test whether the `hp`

effect is the same for `6`

cylinders vs `8`

cylinders. To test that, we just grab the covariance and construct our test:

```
#Example constructing test by hand
v <- vcov(mod)
c <- coef(mod)
dif <- c[1,3] - c[2,3]
se <- sqrt( v[3,3] + v[6,6] - 2*v[3,6])
z <- dif/se
#test stat, standard error, and two-tailed p-value
dif;se;2*(1 - pnorm(abs(z)))
```

Which we end up with a p-value of `0.0002505233`

, so we would reject the null that these two effects are equal to one another. Note to get the variance-covariance estimates for the parameters you need to set `Hess=TRUE`

in the `multinom`

call.

Another easier way though is to use the `car`

libraries function `linearHypothesis`

to conduct the same test:

```
> linearHypothesis(mod,c("6:hp = 8:hp"),test="Chisq")
Linear hypothesis test
Hypothesis:
6:hp - 8:hp = 0
Model 1: restricted model
Model 2: cyl ~ am + hp
Df Chisq Pr(>Chisq)
1
2 1 13.408 0.0002505 ***
---
Signif. codes: 0 ‘***’ 0.001 ‘**’ 0.01 ‘*’ 0.05 ‘.’ 0.1 ‘ ’ 1
```

You can see although this is in terms of a Chi-square test, it results in the same p-value. The Wald test however can be extended to testing *multiple* coefficient equalities, and a popular one for multinomial models is to test if *any* coefficients change across different levels of the dependent categories. The idea behind that test is to see if you can collapse that category with another that is equivalent.

To do that test, I created a function that does all of the contrasts at once:

```
#Creating function to return tests for all coefficient equalities at once
all_tests <- function(model){
v <- colnames(coef(model))
d <- rownames(coef(model))
allpairs <- combn(d,2,simplify=FALSE)
totn <- length(allpairs) + length(d)
results <- data.frame(ord=1:totn)
results$contrast <- ""
results$test <- ""
results$Df <- NULL
results$Chisq <- NULL
results$pvalue <- NULL
iter <- 0
for (i in allpairs){
iter <- iter + 1
l <- paste0(i[1],":",v)
r <- paste0(i[2],":",v)
test <- paste0(l," = ",r)
temp_res <- linearHypothesis(model,test,test="Chisq")
results$contrast[iter] <- paste0(i[1]," vs ",i[2])
results$test[iter] <- paste(test,collapse=" and ")
results$Df[iter] <- temp_res$Df[2]
results$Chisq[iter] <- temp_res$Chisq[2]
results$pvalue[iter] <- temp_res$Pr[2]
}
ref <- model$lab[!(model$lab %in% d)]
for (i in d){
iter <- iter + 1
test <- paste0(i,":",v," = 0")
temp_res <- linearHypothesis(model,test,test="Chisq")
results$contrast[iter] <- paste0(i," vs ",ref)
results$test[iter] <- paste(test,collapse=" and ")
results$Df[iter] <- temp_res$Df[2]
results$Chisq[iter] <- temp_res$Chisq[2]
results$pvalue[iter] <- temp_res$Pr[2]
}
return(results)
}
```

Not only does this construct the test of the observed categories, but also tests whether each set of coefficients is simultaneously zero, which is the appropriate contrast for the referent category.

```
> all_tests(mod)
ord contrast test Df Chisq pvalue
1 1 6 vs 8 6:(Intercept) = 8:(Intercept) and 6:am1 = 8:am1 and 6:hp = 8:hp 3 17.533511 0.0005488491
2 2 6 vs 4 6:(Intercept) = 0 and 6:am1 = 0 and 6:hp = 0 3 5.941417 0.1144954481
3 3 8 vs 4 8:(Intercept) = 0 and 8:am1 = 0 and 8:hp = 0 3 44080.662112 0.0000000000
```

User beware of multiple testing with this, as I am not sure as to the appropriate post-hoc correction here when examining so many hypotheses. This example with just three is obviously not a big deal, but with more categories you get n choose 2, or `(n*(n-1))/2`

total contrasts.

# Testing the equality of multiple indirect effects

Another example I was asked about recently was testing whether you could use the same procedure to calculate indirect effects (popular in moderation and mediation analysis). Those end up being a bit more tricky, as to define the variance and covariance between those indirect effects we are not just dealing with adding and subtracting values of the original parameters, but are considering multiplications.

Thus to estimate the standard error and covariance parameters of indirect effects folks often use the delta method. In R using the `lavaan`

library, here is an example (just taken from a code snippet Yves Rosseel posted himself), to estimate the variance-covariance matrix model defined indirect parameters.

```
#function taken from post in
#https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/lavaan/skgZRyzqtYM
library(lavaan)
vcov.def <- function(model){
m <- model
orig <- vcov(m)
free <- m@Fit@x
jac <- lavaan:::lavJacobianD(func = m@Model@def.function, x = free)
vcov_def <- jac %*% orig %*% t(jac)
estNames <- subset(parameterEstimates(m),op==":=")
row.names(vcov_def) <- estNames$lhs
colnames(vcov_def) <- estNames$lhs
#I want to print the covariance table estimates to make sure the
#labels are in the correct order
estNames$se2 <- sqrt(diag(vcov_def))
estNames$difSE <- estNames$se - estNames$se2
print(estNames[,c('lhs','se','se2','difSE')])
print('If difSE is not zero, labels are not in right order')
return(vcov_def)
}
```

Now here is an example of testing individual parameter estimates for indirect effects.

```
set.seed(10)
n <- 100
X1 <- rnorm(n)
X2 <- rnorm(n)
X3 <- rnorm(n)
M <- 0.5*X1 + 0.4*X2 + 0.3*X3 + rnorm(n)
Y <- 0.1*X1 + 0.2*X2 + 0.3*X3 + 0.7*M + rnorm(n)
Data <- data.frame(X1 = X1, X2 = X2, X3 = X3, Y = Y, M = M)
model <- ' # direct effect
Y ~ X1 + X2 + X3 + d*M
# mediator
M ~ a*X1 + b*X2 + c*X3
# indirect effects
ad := a*d
bd := b*d
cd := c*d
'
model_SP.fit <- sem(model, data = Data)
summary(model_SP.fit)
#now apply to your own sem model
defCov <- vcov.def(model_SP.fit)
```

Unfortunately as far as I know, the `linearHypothesis`

function does not work for `lavaan`

objects, so if we want to test whether the indirect effect of whether `ad = bd`

we need to construct it by hand. But with the `vcov.def`

function we have those covariance terms we needed.

```
#testing hypothesis that "ad = bd"
#so doing "ad - bd = 0"
model_SP.param <- parameterEstimates(model_SP.fit)
model_SP.defined <- subset(model_SP.param, op==":=")
dif <- model_SP.defined$est[1] - model_SP.defined$est[2]
var_dif <- defCov[1,1] + defCov[2,2] - 2*defCov[1,2]
#so the test standard error of the difference is
se_dif <- sqrt(var_dif)
#and the test statistic is
tstat <- dif/se_dif
#two tailed p-value
dif;se_dif;2*(1 - pnorm(abs(tstat)))
```

To test whether all three indirect parameters are equal to each other at once, one way is to estimate a restricted model, and then use a likelihood ratio test of the restricted vs the full model. It is pretty easy in `lavaan`

to create coefficient restrictions, just set what was varying to only be one parameter:

```
restrict_model <- ' # direct effect
Y ~ X1 + X2 + X3 + d*M
# mediator
M ~ a*X1 + a*X2 + a*X3
# indirect effects
ad := a*d
'
model_SP.restrict <- sem(restrict_model, data = Data)
lavTestLRT(model_SP.fit, model_SP.restrict)
```

If folks know of an easier way to do the Wald tests via lavaan models let me know, I would be interested!